The Music Of Silence

Hey everyone! It’s great to be back since I haven’t posted lately. I just finished my college finals yesterday which means I’m done writing essays (for now, at least) and I have more time to write about my interests. Today I’d like to shine the spotlight on an artist who inspired almost everyone I mentioned in writing so far. He’s a visual artist and a musician who taught at Black Mountain College and the New York School of Art; Mr. John Cage. Although his visual art is also stunning, I’d like to focus on his music for this post or more specifically his idea of silence. That’s right. He composed with silence. How is that even possible? Let’s look at his conception of silence and music first.

John Cage with popular teacher of Zen Buddhism DT Suzuki

To John  “music” is a relative term with many possible definitions. When defining it himself, he proclaims all sound is music. When defining it in terms of the larger culture, music is sound arranged in a particular pattern meant to inspire a particular emotion in the listener. Music, in the popular definition, doesn’t exist on its own. The sounds themselves don’t have meaning but we apply meaning to them. For example, a low note on the piano has no intention of sounding angry or sinister yet we attribute these emotions to it.  Is a sound not beautiful if it does not communicate with us or serve us in some way? John believed in the objective appreciation of sound and that all sounds could be enjoyed. In his own definition, any sound from the sound of traffic to rainfall to knocking on a door is music because it is potentially enjoyable so long as the listener is open to the experience. This is closely related to the Buddhist idea of mindfulness that fascinated him.

“Wherever we are, what we hear is mostly noise. When we ignore it, it disturbs us.  When we listen to it , we find it fascinating.”

John Cage

Of all sounds, John’s greatest fascination is silence. He describes an experience where he entered an anechoic chamber; a room designed to be as quiet as possible. In it he heard two sounds; a lower one and higher one that an engineer told him were his nervous system and circulating blood. That’s when he realized no matter how quiet our surroundings might seem, there is always a source of noise.

“There is no such thing as an empty space or an empty time. There is always something to see, something to hear. In fact, try as we may to make a silence, we cannot.”

John Cage

Unable to create a true silence himself, he could discuss the concept of silence in writings and lectures and was able to indicate a silence in sheet music. During his most famous performance, 4’33, the lengthy periods of “silence”,as indicated on paper, were inevitably filled with sounds from the audience such as coughing, sighing, or shifting in their seats. This led to a new definition of silence exclusive to his performances as unintentional sound (or sound that was not controlled for). This “silence”, brought the audience into the performance as any noises coming from them became part of the composition.

By including unintentional sound, John was applying a popular technique within the avant garde performance art group Fluxus, of which he was a part, encouraging audience participation. Artists within Fluxus shared a common goal of combining “art and life”. Like 4’33, their performance art incorporated the audience through participation and even social experiments. In these situations, if the actor is seen as creating art, then the involvement of outside life, the audience, is combining “art and life”. In addition, art one participates in becomes a life experience shared with the others in attendance regardless of how inspirational it is. Anyone who witnessed 4’33 not only experienced it as a performance but contributed to the composition if they made any noise.

John Cage at his avant garde performance, Water Walk. As you can see, he had a great sense of humor.

Ideas of “art and life” were shared by Pop Artists many of whom were John’s students at Black Mountain College. Instead of inviting the audience to participate, Pop Artists used images of everyday things or everyday life, such as Campbell’s soup cans, beer bottles, cars and swimming pools to combine “art and life.” Similarly, John used everyday sounds such as water dripping, ceramic pots shattering, and the sound  of footsteps to combine “art and life.”

Not only did John inspire Fluxus, Pop Art, and even more movements I haven’t mentioned yet, but his legacy lives on in many young musicians today including Glenn Kotche, the drummer from one of my favorite bands, Wilco. I just found out last week that he’s a John Cage fan! I am over the moon about it. I’ve had their album Yankee Hotel Foxtrot on vinyl for some time now and although Glenn doesn’t mention it, I can definitely see the influence of anything as sound especially in the tracks Poor Places and Reservations. So I’ll leave you with a quote of his I really enjoy.

He reinvented music by communicating that music is everything — ALL sound and silence, too. And he communicated trust.He showed how to trust and learn from the world that we live in: how to trust chance and the subtle cues that surround us every day. This is what John Cage communicated. Freedom.

Glenn Kotche

Blau, M (2012). 33 Musicians on what John Cage Communicates. Internet. Available from, https://www.npr.org/2012/08/30/160327305/33-musicians-on-what-john-cage-communicates accessed: April 27 2020

Cage, J. (1961). On Silence: Lectures and Writings by John Cage. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Lushetich, N. (2014) Fluxus: The Practice of Non-Duality. New York, NY: Rodopi.

Opinion: Japanese Art is Underestimated in U.S. History

Wherever the United States has been in contemporary art, Japan got there first. This is especially true of art movements in the 50s and 60s.

In 1950s America, Zen Buddhism became increasingly popular especially among young liberals and artists. The Japanese writer D.T. Suzuki is credited with “bringing Zen to America” through his books and lectures.  He met many important 1950s artists at a hangout in New York city called “The Club” where they would discuss philosophers, writers, and other artists. Notable members included John Cage, Marcel Duncamp, Alan Watts, and Ad Reinhardt.

During the 50s, Abstract Expressionism was the most popular art form and the community of artists involved enjoyed discussing and reading about Zen. In traditional Zen paintings, the artwork isn’t limited to the image but is something felt inside the viewer and doesn’t have to be naturalistic. The purpose of Abstract Expressionism is to evoke feelings in the viewer and it is never representational of real-world objects. Almost as if we borrowed an idea from the Japanese… While Zen art emphasizes the Buddhists ideals of harmony between all things, Abstract Expressionism is meant to convey an individual’s feelings.

Leading up to the 60’s, the most admired thinkers discussed by “The Club” were anti-intellectualists. These are thinkers who prioritize intuition and feeling over logic and often have a great respect for nature. Perhaps the most famous are Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Not surprisingly, many artists in New York at the time (including Jasper Johns and Robert Rauchenburg), who later pursued Pop Art, overheard these conversations and showed appreciation for Zen. I can’t help but wonder  if the combination of Zen and anti-intellectual philosophy created a somewhat ironic uprising of the Pop Artists (who rebelled against Abstract Expressionism). As I explain in my post, The New York Theory, Pop Artists aimed to create art anyone can understand and valued objectivity in art. Although appealing to the masses isn’t expressive of Zen, the ideas of objectivity and including everyone in “fine art” are. For a movement that valued anti-intellectualism, Abstract Expressionists spent a lot of time discussing it. I’m not sure Pop Artists were impressed by that.

Composer John Cage with D.T. Suzuki

American and British 1960s artists received the most attention but many influential artists were Japanese.  Although Johns and Rauchenburg will forever be my favorites as the ones who introduced me to this beautiful world of art, in my personal opinion, Japanese artists  are the most thoughtful, radical, and underestimated. In my next post, I’ll introduce you to these extraordinary people!

Watts, A. (1958). The Spirit of Zen. New York , NY: Grove Press

Westgeest, H. (1996). Zen in the Fifties. Zwolle: Waanders Printers

The New York Theory

Although Pop Art is a relatively young movement, art historians argue about how and where it began. I think all their theories have some merit so I want to cover the most prevalent ones in my posts and have you decide which one you agree with. I’m starting with the first theory I encountered; that Pop Art began in New York City. I’ve settled for the “New York Theory” since it doesn’t have a name yet.

Leading up to the mid 50s, Abstract Expressionism was the dominant art form but many people struggled to understand it. If you’re unfamiliar with that movement, it’s the kind of art that would make a skeptic say, “My five-year old could paint that.” Then, according to this theory, in 1955 Robert Rauchenburg created a multimedia piece called, The Bed, that opened the public to new views of art. 

The Bed was part quilt, part Expressionist painting and left critics confused. It wasn’t completely abstract or completely realistic; it was a whole new brand of art. This lead many critics to fear America was reverting back to naturalism in art.

The Bed-Robert Rauchenburg 1955

Apparently they had nothing to worry about. Rauchenberg’s friend, and for some time, his lover, Jasper Johns, used this opportunity of combining the abstract and realistic to recreate familiar symbols such as American flags, maps, and targets. These symbols mean something to everyone but that something depends on her own experience. Depending on what way you look at it, the American flag, for example, could evoke feelings of pride and patriotism or feelings of fear and anger. Johns wanted to connect with the viewer and, unlike an Abstract Expressionist, did not want art to focus on his emotion. This way art became more about the viewer’s perception than his own.

Close up of Target with Four Faces- Jasper Johns 1955

“I don’t want my work to be an exposure of my feelings.”

Jasper Johns

The shift away from emotion became popular with other artists and led to a completely objective form of art: Pop Art. Instead of symbolic color, Pop Art featured items people used in everyday life such as beer cans, cars, and Coke bottles. Perhaps the most well known Pop Artists are Roy Lichtenstein (known for his comic-like art) and Andy Warhol (known for his celebrity portraits and Campbell’s Soup can). Warhol later became regarded as a “pure pop artist” for his objective portrayal of everyday objects that, according to him, “don’t really mean anything.”

Marilyn Monroe- Andy Warhol 1962

Pop Art expanded the definition of art to include people and life outside the galleries meaning those who couldn’t easily relate to Abstract Expressionism weren’t expected to intellectualize Pop Art.  According to this theory, it began with Johns and Rachenburg as a rebellion against established art. As we’ll soon discover, not everyone agrees…

Chipp, H. (1968). Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Famous Artists Annual: A Treasury of Contemporary Art. Westport, CT: Famous Artists Schools Inc.

Jason, H.W. (1986) History of Art.  New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams.